Monday, November 4, 2013

This Little LED of Mine

But there was a problem. “I don’t like that cool blue light that it emits,” said Ms. Finkelmeier, a retired nurse from Cincinnati.

So she made another switch, to bulbs using a different technology called the light-emitting diode, or LED. It’s a change that regulators and manufacturers, frustrated by consumer rejection of compact fluorescents, hope that others will make as well, especially the millions who have stuck with their energy-guzzling traditional incandescent bulbs, even hoarding them as stricter efficiency standards phase out most of them.

For several years, manufacturers have been making LED lights that increasingly mimic incandescents, while steadily bringing down their prices. Big-box retailers like Walmart are jumping into the market, offering their own brands of the bulbs, often for $10 or less.

Regulators are getting involved, too. The Environmental Protection Agency recently finished overhauling lighting standards for its Energy Star program, making it easier for more LEDs to qualify for generous discounts. And California, a leader in all things green, is going even further, with elaborate new requirements to control not just how much electricity the bulbs use but how the light feels.

“We want a lamp that people fall in love with,” said Gary Flamm, supervisor of the building standards development unit at the California Energy Commission, adding that with compact fluorescents the push toward low prices and high efficiency had sacrificed light quality. “Once they fall in love with it, they can all save significant energy over the incandescent.”

Nationwide, incandescent bulbs, including newer, more efficient halogen models, accounted for roughly 75 percent of general lighting sales this year, according to the National Electrical Manufacturers Association, a trade group, with compact fluorescents making up most of the balance. Manufacturers concede that early versions of the compact fluorescents did not meet expectations for light quality and longevity. Despite advances that have improved their performance, consumers still tick off a host of complaints about the squiggly bulbs: They take time to light up, they do not dim smoothly, they don’t fit with clip-on shades and, worst of all, they cast a harsh and unflattering light. They also contain mercury, raising concerns about breakage and disposal.

“I would, in a way, pay anything to avoid fluorescent,” said Laura Stein, an artist who was picking up several different LEDs to try from a Manhattan Home Depot last week. “I can’t stand them — I’ve always hated them and I will not use them.”

Millions of consumers have come to the same conclusion, even though compact fluorescent bulbs use about 75 percent less electricity than standard incandescents.

LEDs offer a different proposition. Until recently, customers like Ms. Stein could pay about $30 for a bulb — a significant premium even though electricity savings and a life span that extends into the decades can make up the difference in the long run. But several manufacturers — including well-known brands like General Electric, Osram Sylvania and Philips and newcomers like Cree — began offering bulbs for around $10 or less this year.

The drop in price has helped increase demand for them, retailers and manufacturers say, although they still represent only about 1 percent of the bulbs in American homes, according to industry estimates. In the last few years, LED sales have doubled at retailers like Home Depot and, executives there said, reaching roughly 20 percent of their lighting totals.

Ms. Finkelmeier, for instance, said she was very happy with the warmer light from her LEDs as well as with the savings on her electric bills.

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